The God’s of the Nations Are not God (YHWH)
Kikawa’s whole concept is one big generalization that does not take into account the actual history of each nation. He assumes that if they have a name for a supreme God (one of the heavens, which are often called sky gods) who is benevolent, that this is sufficient to make the case for Romans 1. All religious systems grew out from men turning away from the truth. Noah’s worship was pure and was handed down but degeneration quickly took place. Monotheism led to polytheism and then to further corruption with creature worship. Though these cultures may point back to the beginning of history and have kept distortions of the accounts i.e. the deluge in Chinese, Hindu, Egyptian, Greek or South American traditions. Nearly all systems of religion contain some supreme deity above the others or have a parent deity causing (born or created) sub-deities. This is why God made Israel a theocracy and gave the true record. That through these people the whole world would know the truth.
Paul makes this declaration in Romans 3:1-2 “What advantage then has the Jew, or what is the profit of circumcision? Much in every way! Chiefly because to them were committed the oracles of God.”
In these cultures there is no one God (that is Triune) that is separate from all other gods, or did not create other gods. Nor is he a God that created all things, controls all things, and previously existed before all things. He is not described as being infinite, eternal having all knowledge, knowing the future in advance and is able to give specific detail of it to man. And most importantly (which is intentionally overlooked) formed the Hebrew people entrusting them with what he wants mankind to know about themselves and Him. The concepts of these gods are so corrupted that there is no real resemblance to what is presented in the Bible. Paul pointedly asserts that, “the all things were created in Him” (Christ) and “the all things stand created through Him and unto Him.” (Col. 1:16). To say that these foreign names of God are the same God is absurd.
Diminishing the Bible’s record
“Orality is connected with the New Apostolic Reformation heresy of “contextualization.” Orality permits the Word of God to be “contextualized” to a pagan culture through images, icons and symbols, thereby retaining the pagan elements of that culture. Using “redemptive analogies” (another heresy), these pagan beliefs and practices are claimed to be “redeemable” and are “christianized.” Even the name of God is being changed to that of pagan deities!” (Be Alert news – and Discernment ministries).
This is exactly what Kikawa is popularizing; many others are accepting it and copying it. They are literally changing the way to give the gospel to the nations. Danny Lehmann, the first week of January introduced orality to his radio audience. Not surprising that YWAM, University of the Nations on the Island of Hawaii is promoting it (http://www.uofnkona.edu/seminars/storytelling.html)
YWAM has put into practice these new cultural evangelism concepts which are every bit as wrong as their moral government teaching. Redeeming cultures is now an accepted practice (as is apologizing to reconcile them). “Appreciating one's culture is appreciating the creation of God in a unique and beautiful manner. As disciples of Jesus Christ we are also called to redeem our culture as we grow in God” (YWAM DTS, Island Breeze, http://www.islandbreeze.com.au/training.htm)
What if ones culture is connected to their religion, like Islam? Where does the Bible teach to redeem cultures that are fallen? We are to preach the gospel to people- anything more than this is a personal preference.
Having stories of a creator does not guarantee nor remotely approve that they were (are) worshipping the true God. We know the names of the supreme gods these cultures had and we know what they were like. These gods come with historical and spiritual baggage and cannot be separated from their past history of that culture. These gods have a completely different way to relate to their god[s] to appease them. Acceptance of their cultures myths and god[s] implies the Bible is a better Myth.
Kikawa’s intention is to make them comfortable by having them keep their own gods name, and the culture that was supposedly formed by him.
Interviewer- Danny Lehmann-“the application of Acts 17 how does this relate when we go Muslims for instance with their God Allah, to the Koreans to the Japanese to any culture who might have a name for God, or the closest AKA Don Richardson uses that term, the closest also known as that is in that culture to our Jehovah” (Word to the World interview with Daniel Kikawa, Feb.10, 06, #5).
No one knows for sure if all the legends and mythologies attributed to these ancient gods were kept in their original state, as additions were made it probably gave expansion to even further corruption. Lets go over a partial list of the various creator gods of the people throughout the world (some are similar so I’m not sure if any are duplicate names.)
Chuku (Africa) Supreme god of the Ibo peoples, the creator god from which all good comes from him. Kalunga (Africa) supreme creator god of the Lunda people. Kalumba (Zaire) creator God of the Lumba people. Kombu (Africa) Creator god. Bumba (Africa) the Creator god of the Boshongo in Zaire. Deng (Africa) Creator and sky god of the Dinka tribe. Umvelinqangi (Africa) Creator god of the Zulu Massim-Biambe (Africa) the Omnipotent creator god of the Mundang people in the Congo.
Hunab Ku (chief Mayan god) Supreme god and creator of the world. Kukulcan (Mayan) Supreme god, pictured as a feathered serpent. Bitol (Mayan) is one of the seven Mayan creator deities. Ometecuhtli (Aztec) Creator god and the highest god of the Aztec pantheon. Pachacamac (Inca) creator of the world.
Naryana (Hindu) The original supreme being who is associated with the original man and with Vishnu. Brahma (Hindu) Creator god. Dharma (Hindu) was originally a creator god, but is no longer. Tvashtri (Hindu) creator god of the Vedas.
Atum (Egypt) creator of the world and Primordial sun god.
Takami-Musubi (Japan- Shinto belief) the Primordial sky god and creator of living things. Izanagi (Japan) Primordial god of the sky and the creator of everything good and right. His wife Izanami who is goddess of the earth and darkness died in childbirth and became goddess of the Underworld and the dead.
Anam'melech (Babylonian) “Anu is king” Anu was the Babylonian god of the sky.
Kane (Hawaii) Creator god
Panku (China) Primeval being who formed the world Tai-yi (China) The supreme deity of some Chinese mythologies. Tao-de tian-zong (China) Heavenly ruler. He teaches the wisdom of the Tao to earthlings.
Pick one, any one and see if they match any of the qualities in detail to the God of the Bible? You will find a immense difference. And lets not forget the creator goddesses- Citlalicue (Aztec) Creator Goddess; Dziva (Africa ) Creator Goddess of the Shona people.
Let’s take a a more in depth look at the gods Kikawa claims are the creator God of these cultures and see if they have any resemblance to the true God presented in the Bible.
“Now in China there was what there was called the term controversy that was on ongoing, whether they should use the native name of there creator god Shang Ti in China like they did in Korea with Hananim and this controversy y’know both in the Catholic church and the protestant church and it was very, very heated and they decided not to use the name of the creator God in the, in the Chinese Bible. And there are people who point to that and uh really, uh y’know again, like China and Japan as one of the main reasons because this is not their God, now he’s a foreign God come here and uh not using that native name” (Word to the World interview with Daniel Kikawa Feb 16, 2006 #9).
Obviously, Kikawa presents his disappointment that they did not use the native name of the Chinese God as the other cultures do. Again names represent the one that stands behind that name. They are not just names of nations creator Gods but personalities behind them.
“The principle Chinese deities are called Tien -Chi, or heaven and earth. Confucius preserved in his writings the ancient worship of these gods”( The Story of the World’s Worship by Frank S. Dobbins 1901, p.56)
SAN-QING is the Supreme trinity of Chinese DAOism known as The Three Pure Ones. The name refers both to the Three Daoist Heavens and the deities ruling them. YUAN-SHI-TIAN-ZONG: Creator of the Universe and member of the SAN-QING trinity of supreme DAOist Gods. The members of the SAN-QING are JADE-EMPEROR: Supreme God of Chinese Folk Religion, the JADE-EMPEROR is Ruler of Heaven, Creator of the Universe. YUAN-SHI-TIAN-ZONG: member of the SAN-QING trinity of supreme DAOist Gods. Creator of the Universe LING-BAO-TIAN-SONG: Member of the SAN-QING trinity of supreme DAOist Gods. LAO-JUN: Member of the SAN-QING trinity of supreme DAOist Gods. LAO-JUN is the deified form of LAO-ZI, who formulated the DAO pathways and taught them to mankind. When not advising the JADE-EMPEROR or attending Peach Banquets, he lives in the Great Pure Heaven (Tai Qing) where he refines his doctrine and contemplates the ineffable. The YIN and YANG symbols adorn his fan of office, a measure of his importance. In fact he is held in the highest esteem and outranks even YUAN-SHI-TIAN-ZONG, the creator of the Universe.
(There is also FO-HI: The first Supreme Ruler and God-Emperor of China, born about 3,468 B.C). TAI-YI is also known as the Supreme Sky God of Ancient China.
Yuan-shi tian-zong (China) “Celestial Venerable of the Primordial Beginning,” literally the creator of all things in Heaven and earth. Who is considered eternal, limitless and invisible. Almost seems that we could say we have a match; almost. He is one of the pure ones, the so-called San-qing and resides in the Heaven of Jade Purity. It is believed that he came to being at the beginning of the universe as a result of the merging of pure breaths. He then created Heaven and Earth…. Originally, he headed the administration of Heaven but -- like a wise ruler -- entrusted that task to his assistant Yu-huang. The importance of Yu-huang later came to exceed that of Yuan-shi tian-zong. At the beginning of each age or aeon he transmits the Ling-pao ching, the Scriptures of the Magic Jewel, to subordinate deities. Those in turn instruct mankind in the teachings of the Tao. Yuan-shi tian-zong is also believed to rescue souls caught in the various hells and sets them free.
(From encyclopdia mythica http://www.pantheon.org/articles/y/yuan-shi_tian-zong.html also wikipedia.com) Legend tells that he existed before everything, having formed himself from pure QI energy.
Of course none of these descriptions are a problem for those who mix and match gods like Kikawa is teaching. He can glean some of the qualities that are similar in the Bible and ignore the rest. So when in China, he can worship their God and call upon him as Yahweh and in another country do the same.
Then there is also “Yu the Great,” Da-yu is called, “Master of the Way.” He was said to be the son of the Sky God. Here we have another similarity… until- we find that He sometimes portrayed as half-man, half-dragon, but later portrayed as all human. He like others are national deities… He started out as Yuan-shi tian-zong’s (Celestial Venerable of the Primordial Beginning) assistant. When Yuan-shi tian-zong retired, Yu became the main deity. Yu started out as the son of a mortal king and was a mortal himself. When his father died, Yu became king.
Allah “ In fact the Bible in Indonesia…still uses Allah as, when they use it in the bible. So it’s not really Allah but the way it was twisted Almost every nation- as Muslim nation the Christians translate, the Bible societies all over the world have translated for God so loved the world- for Allah so loved the world…” (Word to the World interview with Daniel Kikawa Feb.7, 2006, #2)
Interviewer DL- You can go to any Encyclopedia and find, well no, Allah is the moon god and therefore it shouldn’t be used but I would tend to disagree with that but because Theos was not exactly a holy God either and neither is Gott in Germany, Vued in Sweden, or Hananiim in Korean.” (Word to the World interview with Daniel Kikawa Feb.7, 2006, #2)
The Arabic Bible is filled with the word Allah. Beginning with Genesis and ending with Revelation. Unfortunately, Jesus Christ is called the son of Allah in the Arabic Scriptures. Consider John 1; the word was with Allah and Allah was the word does not seem remotely acceptable to me no matter what Bible translator is doing this. If this name is used differently in its original religion then it cannot be the same in nature as the God of the Bible. Muslims at times may claim that Allah is the same as Yahweh, but they do not allow Christians the same claim- that Yahweh is Allah, since to us Yahweh has a son and is triune, who loves Israel and gave them the oracles of God. Even if it meant the God, it still does not equal being the God of Israel, since the important points of his nature and activity need to be denied. The true God chose Israel and loves her.
The first pillar of Islam, when they recite the shahada- it is there is no ilah but Allah (there is no God (il-lah) but god (allah). If “Allah” were the Arabic word for god it seems that it would have been written: “There is no Allah but Allah.
The name Allah is not a god of a nation, or even a culture but a specific religion- Islam. Islam claims that the name for God is Allah. Any other names are not acceptable, so this does not fit well in Kikawa’s theory.
“This exalted personage was Io, who created all the processes of nature and caused the ahead existing gods to be. He was given various titles of which Io-matua-kore (Io-the-parentless) indicates that he himself was the very beginning. The old theology had a sky of ten successive levels, but the new version added two more and placed Io in residence in the highest heaven” (P.274 Vikings of the Pacific Peter Buck)
Io the parentless is also named the self-created. All the other gods were created by another, he created himself. This is why He is parentless.
“And the spirits of the gods were fixed to no bodies, only the three above gods had power to create heaven and earth. Of these three Kane was the greatest in power, and Ku and Lono were inferior to him.” [from Ke Au Okoa, October 14, 1869), From Kamakau in Fornander, Collection (“Memoirs,” No. 6), pp. 322-23).
This is not the Godhead in the Bible and not as Kikawa claims -all equal, Kane who is the Son is superior to the other two.
Kepelino's Traditions of Hawaii: “Kane, Kanaloa, Lono, this is the great godhead of the forefathers of Hawaii, and these gods belong to class one. They are male gods. They have no source. …, and these gods made many gods, the host of gods, man and all things. ” (Kepelino's Traditions of Hawaii, page 10, B. P. Bishop Museum, Bul. 95, Honolulu, 1932).
Can gods make other gods? This is not related to the Bible account at all.
“Io sent the Mana across the Po (the darkness), and created Kane, the creator, and creation began” http://www.huna.com/gods_diagram.html. Can Kane be the Son of God in the Bible if he is created?
Almost all ancient cultures had a supreme God the leader of the pantheon. This is not a true monotheistic belief in one God.
Tane of Polynesia is Kane in Hawaii. H T. Whatahoro in The Lore of the Whare-wananga; says there are 70 gods, “Tane, God number sixty-eight” (p.92 The Lore of the Whare-wananga; Teachings of the Maori College On Religion, Cosmogony, and History Written down by H. T. Whatahoro)
Interviewee- Daniel Kikawa-again if look at Asia, there’s, theres one, Y’know, we’ve done really poorly, um, but theres one country now is, uh soul Korea is 60% Christian. And uh um y’know, when we look at that they use the native name of God Hananim there” (Word to the World interview with Daniel Kikawa Feb. 16, 2006 #9)
Interviewer DL- “We’ve been talking about a little bit of a controversial subject but sometimes it escapes me why it becomes so controversial Daniel. Because not only in culture we use Korea as a classic example, they used the Korean name for God that these people have been worshipping (Word to the World interview with Daniel Kikawa Feb.17, 2006 # 10)
In a list of 28 Korean gods –Hananim is the Sky God and Hananim is the Supreme God of ancient Korea http://www.houseofenlightenment.com/korgod.html
Roman Catholicism came to Korea at the end of the 18th century, and the first Protestant missionary a hundred years later (Encyclopedia Mythica)
There is no creation myth in the Korean collections, what we have is from the 12th and 13th centuries. in the Korean myths Dan'gun, the grandson of the Heavenly Ruler, becomes the first ruler of Korea. The first ruler of each country is a son born to a heavenly deity's son. The ruler is, therefore, someone from the land. Dan'gun is born of a woman (originally a bear), who lives on the mountain from which the Heavenly Ruler's son first descended. ( Foundation and Creation Myths in Korea and Japan: Patterns and Connections Joo-Young Yoo Faculty Mentor: Professor Mack Horton: http://www.aad.berkeley.edu/uga/osl/mcnair/94BerkeleyMcNairJournal/07_Yoo.html
Korean shamanism has ancient roots. It is closely related to the primitive cult of communal worship rites offered to the gods of heaven, and is infused with Buddhist tradition. Belief in a world inhabited by spirits Korean shamanism seeks to solve human problems through a meeting between humanity and the spirits mediated by the shaman. Hanullim ("Sky" or "Supreme Being", the power that manages the periodic changes of the entire universe. The cosmogonic goddess Solmundae Halmang (Grandmother) is the creator of the islands, mountains, valleys, hills, and rivers on Cheju Island, Korea.
There is a rather unorganized pantheon of literally millions of gods, spirits, and ghosts, ranging from the "god generals" who rule the different quarters of heaven to mountain spirits (sansin). This pantheon also includes gods who inhabit trees, sacred caves, and piles of stones, Roman Catholic missionaries did not arrive in Korea until 1794, 90 years later the Protestant Missionaries came.
Belief in a world inhabited by spirits is probably the oldest form of Korean religious life, dating back to prehistoric times. There is a rather unorganized pantheon of literally millions of gods, spirits, and ghosts, ranging from the “god generals” who rule the different quarters of heaven to mountain spirits (sansin). This pantheon also includes gods who inhabit trees, sacred caves, and piles of stones, as well as earth spirits, the tutelary gods of households and villages…”http://countrystudies.us/south-korea/43.htm
“… human beings cannot have contact, via the senses, with Hanullim (“Sky” or “Supreme Being”, the power that manages the periodic changes of the entire universe. For this reason, only through the indirect means of a religious rite can Hanullim communicate with a human being's spirit. In this sense, the religious experience of possession and the rites to Hanullim are seen to have a different meaning. (http://www.opm.go.kr/warp/webapp/content/view?meta_id=english&id=75)
Modern Day Christianity in Korea and Its Historical Background By Hachung Chung Instructor: Ron Overton
“Koreans were open-minded to Christianity because it was continuous in many aspects with Shamanism and Confucianism. In other words, missionaries effectively "Koreanized" Christianity in order to avoid the conflict between the new and old religions.
I thought Koreans must have abandoned their former beliefs before converting to Christianity. Surprisingly, I learned that Koreans did not have to give up their former beliefs and customs to become Christians. Koreans were open-minded to Christianity because it was continuous in many aspects with Shamanism and Confucianism. In other words, missionaries effectively “Koreanized” Christianity in order to avoid the conflict between the new and old religions.
“The most striking example of this is shown in the Korean word “Hananim,” which indicates God for Christians only, in present days. However, before the Protestant missionaries came to Korea, Hananim used to mean the highest deity in Korean religious culture from primitive times. The meaning of Hananim was transformed because Protestant missionaries in the beginning of the 20th century used this term to express their God. According to the article, “Political insecurity, social chaos, religious void and the rise of Protestantism in late nineteenth-century Korea,” written by A.E. Kim, “The missionaries also portrayed the supreme deity of Christianity as a merciful God who, like Hananim of the old, grants earthly wishes, attends to all kinds of human needs and answers people’s prayers”(275). Hence, Korean Christians kept the name of their Shamanistic god, which was Hananim, and they continued to pray for their earthly wishes, such as the health, wealth, and fame of their family members. In addition, the transformation of the meaning of Hananim also reflects how the secular aspects of Shamanism were successfully applied to Christianity. The article asserts that Confucianized Koreans had little to give up in accepting the Ten Commandments. A.E.Kim says, “Particularly emphasized was the idea that Protestantism shared the same values as Confucianism regarding the family” (275). He continues: “The Confucianism ideal of the subordination of wife to husband was also emphasized as being consistent with the Christian exaltation of a wife’s submission to her husband” (275). Therefore, Koreans were able to follow their Confucianism values and become Christian at the same time” link to article
Kikawa –“So by finding the native name of God which in, in Japan we found that name is Amenominakanushi which means the God in the glorious center of heaven and he is their creator God who created everything. And so we found this name of this creator God there, and it immediately says he’s a Japanese God and he loves them” (Word to the World interview with Daniel Kikawa Feb 16, 2006 #9)
Who is Ameno-mi-nakanushi? According to the Kojiki he was the first kami (deity) to come into being in the Plain of at the time of the creation of the universe. This is the God Kikawa says loves them, a created god among others. The Kojiki is one of the two primary sources for the Shinto, the Japanese national religion. It starts in the realm of myth, with the creation of Japan from foam. Innumerable gods and goddesses are described. Shinto is a Chinese-derived word which means “the way of the gods” (Shin= gods; To, from Tao= the way).
His video, “ God's Fingerprints in Japan” deserves a separate article, it’s that appalling (and is forthcoming). Yet YWAM also endorsed this curled piece of history and convergence of religions.
John Dawson commenting on, “God’s Fingerprints in Japan.” I now know that we have the key to open the correct door …We would like to use this video as a central part of our missionary work in Japan and to use it as an example for our missionaries around the world, of how to present the gospel to indigenous peoples"(Aloha ke Akua website).
"Thank you for your in depth research that is giving us keys that I believe will help us reach modern day youth in Japan" (Loren Cunningham Founder of YWAM, President - University of the Nations International)
One should see how he passes off Catholicism as Christianity and even misrepresents the Kojiki of Japan to try to syncretize the two belief systems.
Kojiki -the preface- “Now when chaos had begun to condense, but force and form were not yet manifest, and there was nought named, nought done, who could know its shape? Nevertheless Heaven and Earth first parted, and the Three Deities performed the commencement of creation”
He intentionally ends this quote here and excludes what comes next: the Passive and Active Essences then developed, and the Two Spirits became the ancestors of all things.”
After quoting Steven hawking the physicist on a God making things, he again goes to the beginning of the Kojiki and quotes “The names of the deities that were born (literally, that become) in the Plain of High Heaven when the Heaven and Earth began were the God in the glorious center of Heaven Amenominakanushi” Next the God of high generative power (Takamimusubi), next the God of Divine Generative power (Kamimusubi). These three deities born alone (not procreated) and hid their persons.” (see review on his video God's Fingerprints in Japan)
Unfortunately the Kojiki of which he quoted from (B.H. Chamberlain, translator 1882) does not say this, he twists the words, adds his own to form his Christianized version.
Kojiki “The names of the deities that were born in the Plain of High Heaven when the Heaven and Earth began were the deity Master-of-the-August-Center-of-Heaven; next, the High-August-Producing-Wondrous deity; next, the Divine-Producing-Wondrous deity. These three deities were all deities born alone, and hid their persons. The names of the deities that were born next from a thing that sprouted up like unto a reed-shoot when the earth, young and like unto floating oil, drifted about medusa-like, were the Pleasant-Reed-Shoot-Prince-Elder deity, next the Heavenly-Eternally-Standing deity. These two deities were likewise born alone, and hid their persons.
The five deities in the above list are separate Heavenly deities.” [emp. mine]
He conveniently (purposely) forgot to include the next paragraph where there were two other deities- The five Deities in the above list are separate Heavenly Deities (p15, The Kojiki). Despite that fact that these three separate deities came into existence by being born (not procreated by parents),
Kikawa Christianizes the Japanese myth to be like the Bible, showing Genesis 1:1-2 as a comparison. He puts on the screen a portion of the Kojiki to make his point of three deities as equal to the Genesis 1:1-2 account “In the beginning elohim (literally the gods” Biblically – the trinity, created the heavens and the earth.”
elohim=gods. Is this what Gen.1 is really saying? Elohim is only translated gods (in plural) for false gods, not for the one true God. The Kojiki says they all came into existence and they are three deities. Kikawa shows that he endorses tritheism by his interpretation of 3 gods. Besides, there are actually 5 in all (along with many others that were birthed.)
This is nothing related to the account in Genesis except for some similar words. God was not born and he existed before heaven and earth were created. If these deities were born in the plain of high heaven then they did not existed before they cam into existence.
Kikawa's video goes on to state -“It makes perfect sense that the Japanese people would have this revelation of God. (He then goes to his favorite point of reference Romans 1:19-20.)
In another writing it is said: “When Heaven and Earth began, there were deities produced together, …." It is further stated: "The names of the gods which were produced in the Plain of High Heaven were Ama no mi-naka-nushi no Mikoto, next Taka-mi-musubi no Mikoto, next Kami-mi-musubi no Mikoto."
Thereafter divine beings were produced between them” “Alas! my ancestors were Heavenly deities, and my mother was a goddess of the Sea”
This has nor reference point to the Bible. Kikawa has not found ancient monotheism in Japan (as referred to in Romans 1) but henotheism; a main God with other deities or many sub deities. Amaterasu, is the most important of the kami (deity). In Shintoism there is a Younger sister deity but no only “begotten Son” or son that was eternally with the Father. There are generations of deities. In Korea Hananim has no son. There is really no correlation to be made in his teachings.
We do not worship god under a different name, because it is a god of another culture’s history. Anyone can find some word, some practice in nearly every culture that would have as similarity if they strip it down to the bare minimum and shuffle enough stories and names around.
Can you imagine the Christians everywhere calling on the Gods of their nation as God -Haninim, Io, Shang Ti, Ameno-mi-nakanushi. Kikawa thinks its okay to call upon other God’s names, what he is actually doing is invoking powers that we should not be acquainted with.
You want to use Biblical names of the Lord not pagan ones. Names that truly represent Him. Lev 19:12: “And you shall not swear by My name falsely, nor shall you profane the name of your God: I am the LORD.” Using other names as if they are representing him is profaning his name. Again the name represents the one behind it, His nature and ability. These names of these cultures gods are not transliterations of the true God’s name, they are names of false God’s that should never be connected to or attributed to have God’s only begotten son- our savior who died for them. The Lord is called the Holy One of Israel, not the holy one of Korea, Japan, China or anywhere else. Though He is the savior to people in every land and culture, God says in prophecy, “So I will make My holy name known in the midst of My people Israel, and I will not let them profane My holy name anymore. Then the nations shall know that I am the LORD, the Holy One in Israel” (Ezek 39:7).
pt. 5 Cultivating other Gods