Were the 10 commandments given to Adam and Eve?
Absolutely not. There is no mention of ten commands nor any of these. One has to argue from the silence of scripture or assume it is saying this because of their position on law.
There are only two instructions (commands) we read that were given to Adam and Eve in Genesis:
Gen 1:28 God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it; have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the air, and over every living thing that moves on the earth."
Gen 2:16-17 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; "but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die." They are forbidden to eat of the one tree along with being fruitful and exercising dominion.
The Law came through Moses, all 613 commandments not just 10. They did not come from Adam, or Noah.
What of commandment #1? How do you obey it if you make the Sabbath the most important, it is idolatry to elevate it above the great commandment (Mt.22:36- in fact when Jesus was asked what is the great commandment of the law he did not speak of the Sabbath.)
Nine of the 10 Commandments are moral: do not steal, do not lie, do not murder. These were in man who was made in God's image, they are written upon the conscience of man. It is the Fourth Commandment the seal of the covenant to Israel that is not. It is a separate law given to be obeyed exclusively by the nation Israel, it was the seal of the Mosaic covenant (Exod.16:29 See, for that the LORD hath given you the Sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day"
Exod. 31:16-17 "Therefore the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant. 'It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel forever." Any application would be only for Israel not the other nations.
Deut 5:15 "And remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and that the LORD your God brought you out from there by a mighty hand and by an outstretched arm; therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day."
Exod 34:28" So he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he neither ate bread nor drank water. And He wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments." Clearly it took an event like this, Moses representing a nation for God to make plain
Deut 4:13 "So He declared to you His covenant which He commanded you to perform, that is, the Ten Commandments; and He wrote them on two tablets of stone." Clearly Israel were the first recipients
Rom 4:15-16 "because the law brings about wrath; for where there is no law there is no transgression. Therefore it is of faith that it might be according to grace, so that the promise might be sure to all the seed, not only to those who are of the law, but also to those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all
Rom 5:13-14 (For until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come." Notice sin was there before the law; which means it could be recognized because man was made in the likeness of God.
Rom 5:20-21"Moreover the law entered that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace abounded much more, so that as sin reigned in death, even so grace might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." Meaning Christ is our righteousness, not the law. Otherwise one forfeits grace.
When we go back to Genesis, before Cain killed his brother God said to him because of his lack of faith and the wrong offering it was sin. Gen 4:6-7 So the LORD said to Cain, "Why are you angry? And why has your countenance fallen? "If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin lies at the door. And its desire is for you, but you should rule over it."
There are NO offerings mentioned are in the 10 commandments? Yet God called it sin for Cain not to offer the right one (and lacking faith), why? Anything contrary to the nature of God, His commands, His ways is sin. Man instinctively knew this because we were made in his image and likeness. Man was made with a conscience, this is why Adam Eve after they sinned felt shame and hid from the Lord. So don't let anyone tell you that the 10 commandments that were first given to Moses were given to Adam, it simply is not true.